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Quantum Computing Ep12 by Karan Bhandari
– For creating new IBM account
– IBM Meetup
Speaker: Shesha S Raghunathan – IBM Q Ambassdor
– Overview Quantum physics
– Experiment arena
– A Beginner’s Guide to Quantum Computing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S52rxZG-zi0 and https://youtu.be/OWJCfOvochA
– Big picture Quantum Computing
– Approximate Transcript of the session:
This is the Technology icing podcast and this episode is brought to you by Karen Bhandari, a full stack developer working at Societe Generale.
The content of this presentation is quantum computing. Most of the content material has been derived from the conference – I had recently attended on the 7th December 2019 at IBM campus on IBM Q as well as a few presentations and materials- I have come across at brilliant.org as well as plural sight quantum computing, the big picture and QES kit-Curated by IBM now.I may not be an expert commenting on.The developments of quantum computing. It is just some random.net angular sequel. Some beginner and machine learning guy is trying to figure out what is quantum computing like when he attended the conference or me? how I feel about it and what kind of differences? do I see from a full stack perspective?So don’t consider me to be a physics expert expert becaus my only knowledge has been till 12. Standard and I’ll do my best on conveying what I’ve understood so far and hopefully someone in the community could correct me.Quantum computing.Let’s describe this as something which is opposed to what opposed to classical computing. What is classical computer where I’m recording this podcast on a classical computer something?That is a laptop an I have a smartphone with me which I carry that’s a classical computer.And these are generally manipulated by bits, which is generally.In either or state of 0 or one like a light switch.There is another realm of computing, which people are trying to explore called the neurotic computing like they’re trying to emulate what the brain could do.And they are trying to use signal theory to see how one cell of a nerve is axeon dendrites are trying to send signals to the other nerves. Anne, how a memory based learning happens like bit by bit is bit by bit logic is something like.If I need to represent 2 it will be.Of one zero if I represent 3. It’ll be 1 one if I represent 7. It will be 1. One one, so I’m representing the knowledge in bits.In a neuron.Oh do you have?Um.They have something called as weights and biases.In the sense, I’m learning match by doing memory for example, if I want to do mathematics on multiplication. I don’t do bitwise computation. I just remember the entire.Table mathematics table for example, till 20 and then I or maybe even 10 is enough and then I extend this to tables with the concept to other two other greater tables with the with the concept of carry over, so I’m I’m trying to do mathematics by memory. This is neuron type computing an the 3rd part which I’m going to talk about is the qubits now cubits.Can be imagined to be something like?Um.The regulator of your fan or your thermostat where you could you could be on or off but you can also be somewhere in between for example, OK, you could be either at.Oh, 45 to 50 Celsius or you could be at 5 degrees Celsius. An you can also be somewhere. In between with the help of regulator so qubit could exist in more states than a bit could exist in an this actually comes from quantum physics, and quantum physics deals with mostly amplitude and the probability distribution of Electrons.An quite a lot of famous physicians have tried to study the phenomenon of light being both or particle as well as a wave form so.If you treat a wave like if you’ve seen a wave like in music or when some of your friends have been connected to heart rate monitor or you could see waves to be something that goes up and down an there is something called’s Crest and there is a tough. The bottom part which dips down and the upper part is crashed. So we say that an electron exists in a particular area. If there is a crash that is there is some mountain.In the waveform.And in the absence of it is denoted by the bottom part of the wave.In in the case where electron if we need to find out what is the state of the electron we find out the position by finding out the position of the upper part and?Uh some people have also tried doing experiments if you research and Google something called as a 2 slit experiment.It is nothing but you take a paper and you make 2 slits in it through with the help of a scissor vertically of both slits are spaced by a few millimeters and then when you flash your paint your paint gun around it. You’ll see that OK your paint is you know, and if you put another surface behind these 2 slits you’ll see that OK. The paint gun occupies the parts where there is gaps.But in case of electron gun.Uh the if suppose you have an electron gun and you shoot waves.And if they go through the slit and so some ways goes through one slit another waves goes to others. Let’s then they form. These interference patterns and they don’t form 2 slits they form multiple you know multiple marks of paint of electrons everywhere. Spaced by a few did unit distances apart an this interference is something that quantum computers.Try to leverage or to find out what is the state of the electron an they use probability distribution for example.Probability distribution is something that is used in logistics regression where you trying to classify whether it’s a cat or a dog or whether it’s or human or an animal or this? What they do is they make something called AZS curve. I think that’s getting into too many details.IBM presented to us.The IBM Q System One and this is the quantum system. One Anne they tried their best to maintain this cubits at minus 273, – 270 degrees Celsius, which is one form of supercomputing called the superconducting super superconducting quantum computing.And superconducting quantum computing is needed becaus I think you want to stabilize the Electrons because I have a time. Not very sure, but this is what I’m feeling that if the electrons are random in nature. Then it’s very difficult to find out the position becaus they’re having momentum.And Uh Heisenberg has a principle that states that if you want to find out the position of the electron then you should not have any momentum and if you have position. You cannot find out the momentum that is.You.You you should not be able to find out the wavelength. If you knew the amplitude of the wave and you can’t find both at the same time you can’t have a wife and you can’t have a girlfriend at the same time, OK sorry bad analogy.And so they say that so that so I think that’s why they try to cool, it down an Deep Throat right OK in a normal conduct of what happens is the electrons flow from one end of the conductor to the other end or in the magnet decree 2 pools. North Pole and South Pole and the electrons are oriented in a specific fashion so electricity can flow through.But in this case, they don’t make things flow at the artist stationary. The Electrons are stationary and based on the orientation defined out? What is the qubit state is?So IBM Q System one. UM, I I saw the the photos. They were trying to show they had some dilution refrigerator and the qubits are actually they have just 50 cubits in the largest computer but 50 cubits is enough to simulate or is enough to have like the all the items or not all the items like a good chunk of more than 50% of the items that that are present in mother Earth, 50 cubits can represent that much information.Because they say that OK, the bits if you need to represent.Eat you need to have 3 bits like one or no, yeah, so you need to have 4 bit sorry and if you need to represent 7. You need to have 3 bits and then the bits keeps growing at 2 to the power of something but in the case of quantum.The theso your your two year 2 bit skin represent more than so around 4:00 and then you’re 3 can represent 8 and much more so. So, your cubits if you have something like 50 cubits. I think you can have like trillions and trillions of combinations because they’re growing at such exponential levels.Us so that’s why they have it at the size of farm which is good enough for you know decent simulations exercises.They have a dilution or refrigerator, an what happens is as and when you go from the Top to the bottom they try to reduce the temperature further further further photo for example, above is 40. Kelvin Kelvin is nothing but like if it’s 1 Kelvin. It’s know if it’s 0 Kelvin. It’s 273 degrees Fahrenheit in Celsius and.So should what do you trying to keep the chip is in something like 10 to the 10 to 15 Millie kelvins and what did what this does is they have an in. They have a classical computer and a supercomputer so this quantum computer mixed together, because you need.The wave of the wave system to communicate things to the classical computing becaus. It typically you would not have stat kind of superconducting thing in your own house. But what IBM claims to have done is they have made it in the size of a data center and they have this massive cooling capacities and it typically people would submit web jobs from a desktop computer so you need to translate your.We’ve type output to the normal output so they interface microwave signals an they can resend it to an FPGA and this and they have a big kind of enclosure to prevent noise from coming in, so in this noise is not nothing but it’s not the sound noise, but quite a lot of things can be noise for them. For example, even if the temperature increases the hyperactivity of the electrons increase, and they start releasing.Random photons an so that’s why they need to keep it at super cool temperatures. This one move. There are many movies that quantum computing is set to have developed but I think most of them are theoretical. Most practical things I may have seen or come across I don’t know is is you know in the superconducting side like for example, there is one more type of of.Computer one more type of quantum computer there. Actually, 3 other types, which you will get to hear in the plural sight course and you see you see Microsoft. Google IBM have started investing.Or heavily into this realm, and this is very promising becaus.Dinner just have potential to solve things that classical computer could not have, but can it can also unlock other path breaking things other part breaking scenarios that we may not have thought about.So.Uh let me give you some examples of where this quantum computer could be used. I’m sorry if I’ve mentioned super computing in the?Pre previous few minutes because I feel that quantum computing can be close to supercomputing becaus of its capabilities.US first one of these chemical simulation for example.When you have molecules with you the scaling of the molecules become very exponential.Oh, because of a single molecule is consisting of many atoms and atoms are having.Protons neutrons and electrons orbiting around that nucleus, which has that and a simple thing like caffeine.You know caffeine or simulation can take a numerous like it takes more than 20% of the items of the earth or or 20% of the atoms of the earth that many times of bits to simulated which is actually Humongous. So so I feel that if you want to simulate caffeine molecule. It’s almost impossible. I’m saying that caffeine is is not that simple, it’s a hydrocarbon.An you may feel that OK. It has just 16 nodes in it, and why you saying it takes so much.Even if you even if you’re trying to arrange your friends your 10 friends on a single dining table. You have 10 factorial combinations, which is a very big number so even a simple thing like.Oh caffeine simulation or maybe if you want to discover new drugs how how how can a drug latch onto a virus and inhibit you know it’s effect to cause cancer to you an you know to simulate so many things build a compound. It’s it’s it takes a very long time you need to also perform simulations and accuracy in simulations is generally 50%, so drug discovery is something that is very important in the other one is battery research.Uh because the you need to find out the smallest molecule that can store more energy reduces size. You need to simulate things at molecular level. Then the protein structure material Sciences gene analysis. There are so many things that have exponential types of computing and in artificial intelligence have seen that in CNN, which is convoluted neural networks.This sample the images to Dumbo things to find out what it is for example, if they’re looking at.Uh something like a water bottle or let’s let’s take for example, or human with eyeglasses. They just convert the eyeglasses 22 circles and they you know sample just outlines and they dumb down in the sense your alphabet a has just got one horizontal rod and then one or we which is inverted upside down on the very small Top and just 2 lines, which are 45 degrees.And then you know they try to sample down the images by a big margin so an most of them operate on 64 by 64 pixels to find out what the image is there be cause. If you have to find out the combination of all the pixels, though it will be very difficult for a normal classical computer to do so even in CNN. The part breaking image classification algorithms try to sample it down so that it can be tractable by a normal computer. Even the NP hard problems or the simulation experiments like Monte Carlo.Predictions or risk analysis of portfolios these could be solved by quantum computing and then.Uh IBM’s claims that if you can convert anything to a matrix they can take it and you know perform some things to enable those quantum computer to understand these instructions and.In this eml also they did not do so much approximation and they can do more convergence on the dimensions and better classification. You you.You can even go to an advanced level like for example, you need not allowed will to be classified as a fish because it is a mammal it is not it may be a fish it cannot be official is still a mammal which can swim.Oh, but but if you do, but you know if you need to make a CNN understand that OK. It’s avail. You need to give it move it more data like OK, not just swimming not just being in water, but also OK. How does it give birth an? How does it reproduce so these complicated you know you in AI? You start giving more access of data is an I think it becomes more and more difficult as in when you add too many things to be considered becaus nature is actually quite random.It’s not very predictable anything can happen to anyone like oil.Something like a butterfly flapping its wings in Brazil may cause a tornado somewhere else. I don’t know like the people. That’s called the butterfly effect, so nature is very unpredictable an?DSC not up the the quantum bit is something that gives approximate results. It does not give the exact results. Becaus sometimes noise comes into place. So 2 + 3 becomes 4.9999 and then you apply some probabilistic layered over it, saying that OK 2 + 3 becomes 5. So if IBM advice that do not use quantum computing for things that classical computer can solve.Um Ann.Oh yeah, I just received the I just remembered what you need 10 to the power of 48 bits in classical computer to handle or simulator caffeine molecule OK. Let’s get back to the the computation part so.The classical thing is measured by how many flops or teraflops are there, but in quantum. They are measuring by the error rate because you know noise like temperature interference bad coherence an calibration crosstalk. You know the wave issues that you see in the telecom industry can also start affecting this an and the the characterize the error rates.And and you know becauses 2 + 3 gives you a probabilistic answer of 5. They say the more number of times you execute the answer. You need to see like I draw? What probability the answers coming so you try to get many you try to replicate it many times and see. Where is the probabilistic answer going towards so you won’t get a direct answer so and of course as I told you before don’t try to do things that classical computer can do like addition is very simple.But complicated cases like simulation or you know trying to put in like 10,000 variables. These are something that where the state space is very high where the state space becomes exponential, then you should try using the quantum computing an?The noises should be reduced in the sense make sure that the quantum. Computers is at a very optimal temperature that the cube. It should be super cold and for for example, I know I think there is other types of so other types of quantum computing something that Microsoft talks about frequently is called a topological ones.And then there is spin. State then there is light polarizations or different kinds of companies are experimenting IBM claims at Microsoft is still a theoretical stage.And know what Microsoft has done for the community of quantum science is they have given them the quantum development kit and you can write Q Sharp and you can simulate quantum commands to be given to if the quantum computer vertebrae invented by them, but IBM has given you know the entire community. You know, some computers at their disposal and you can also you.Normal man can also submit jobs to the quantum computer today, so most of their knowledge is located in qskit.org an.That’s the training and the community involvement, an where people go to submit their quantum computing jobs is quantum-computing.ibm.com. You need to register with an IBM account and they have 2 kinds of ways, you can write quantum codes. One is a circuit composer.And the other one is QIS kit notebook, which is a quiz kid. Notebook is very similar to a Python style notebook and circuit computer is where you drag and drop gate. San measuring things, then you connect them together, something like a digit like an online breadboard. They give you and you drag and drop the items, so those we see the big inning is use the circuit composer.Uh to do basic experiments an cues kit has some impressive examples for if you go to the quantum computing. Jupiter notebook tutorial. They have a PY&B notebook jupyter notebook that has shown you how to do stochastic vector modeling an they have shown you? How do you go about doing?Do I add the adversarial network GNN uhm so generating adversarial network? Is nothing but a good dog bad dog like if the dog does the right thing you see Oh well done and if the dog does not do the right thing you say bad dog and you don’t give them the biscuit?And do you have a so so they are exposing their machine learning libraries through?A library called, is Akwa.An they have other things that they are offering like you ice skate chemistry. QoS kit finance guy skit AI that helps you to go about doing.We’re trying it out an what happens over here is once you submit a job. You need to select one of those freely available quantum computing machines that they have given to the community. So when you submit a job it gets queued in the system. For example, if you are 16th in the queue. Then, after 16 jobs are finished then you’re you get a chance to execute your code.So they have won super 1 quantum computer in Melbourne in Essex in Burlington in London, an QSM simulator and each most of them on an average have around 5 to 20 cubits. An these are the backends available to the community and they can submit quantum jobs, either through the notebook or the circuit composer.Or through quantum-computing.ibm.com and can see the results of the same.It’s a fairly complicated topic. Microsoft has also invested in Q SDK which you can run simulations on your classical computer to an so when the quantum computing is made commercial then you may be able to start using the same instruction set as Microsoft.QSDK and You will be able to get exposed to how to do programming against it. An yeah, I think IBM. One is available for the community and recently in a WS reinvent the OR have also shown how to go about doing quantum computing an eye. I strongly recommend you to look at the YouTube video and some of the foundations of what is quantum physics and the quantum computing big picture?Included site.Uh also explains like Barebone idea of what quantum computing is about an IBM has excellent resources in the quest kit just ecosystem that they have so start experimenting and stay sharp stay relevant. This is Karan Bhandari signing off have a productive week ahead or if you’re listening in the weekend have a pleasant weekend goodbye.